Top 10 Most Spoken Languages in Asia (2024) - Facts, Origins, and Example Phrases

Updated on: October 3, 2023

The continent of Asia is home to over 4.5 billion people, making it the most populous continent on Earth. With such a large and diverse population, Asia is also home to a vast array of languages. In fact, Asia contains several of the most widely spoken languages in the world.

In this article, we will explore the 10 most spoken languages across the Asian continent. The sheer number of native speakers of these major Asian languages is staggering. From hundreds of millions to over a billion, these languages are used in communication by a substantial portion of the global population.

The 10 Most Spoken Languages in Asia

1. Mandarin Chinese - 1 billion speakers

With over a billion speakers, Mandarin Chinese tops the list as the most spoken language in Asia and the second one in the world.

Mandarin's status as the official language of China has contributed to its global importance. However, what sets Mandarin apart is its tonal nature. Unlike most Western languages, Mandarin uses tones to convey meaning. 

Another intriguing aspect of Mandarin is its writing system. Mandarin Chinese uses Chinese characters, which are logograms representing words or meaningful elements of words. 

These characters have a history spanning thousands of years and are not based on an alphabet. Each character carries its own meaning, and there are tens of thousands in existence. 

Here are some basic phrases you can learn in mandarin:

  • Hello: 你好 (Nǐ hǎo)
  • Thank you: 谢谢 (Xièxiè)
  • Yes: 是的 (Shì de)
  • No: 不 (Bù)
  • Goodbye: 再见 (Zàijiàn)
  • Excuse me: 对不起 (Duìbuqǐ)
  • How are you?: 你好吗? (Nǐ hǎo ma?)
  • My name is...: 我叫... (Wǒ jiào...)
  • I don't understand: 我不明白 (Wǒ bù míngbái)
  • Please: 请 (Qǐng)

2. Hindi - 500 million speakers

Hindi, one of the most spoken languages in Asia and in the world, is not only fascinating for its sheer number of speakers but also for its cultural and historical significance. 

With approximately 500 million speakers, Hindi is the official language of India and serves as a lingua franca for much of the Indian subcontinent. What makes Hindi intriguing is its connection to Sanskrit, one of the oldest known languages in the world. 

Hindi shares a deep linguistic and literary heritage with Sanskrit, and many Hindi words and phrases have their roots in this ancient language. This link to Sanskrit enriches Hindi with a wealth of classical literature, philosophical texts, and a complex system of grammar and syntax.

Another captivating aspect of Hindi is its diverse dialects and regional variations. India is a country of immense linguistic diversity, and Hindi itself has numerous dialects spoken across different regions. 

Let’s see some general words and phrases you can use in Hindi:

  • Hello: नमस्ते (Namaste)
  • Thank you: धन्यवाद (Dhanyavaad)
  • Yes: हाँ (Hān)
  • No: नहीं (Nahīṁ)
  • Goodbye: अलविदा (Alvida)
  • Excuse me: माफ कीजिए (Māf kījiye)
  • How are you?: आप कैसे हैं? (Āp kaise hain?)
  • My name is...: मेरा नाम है... (Mērā nām hai...)
  • I don't understand: मुझे समझ में नहीं आया (Mujhe samajh mein nahīn āyā)
  • Please: कृपया (Kripyā)

3. Arabic - 345 million speakers

Arabic is a language with a storied history and a deep impact on the cultural, religious, and linguistic landscape of Asia which has approximately 345 million speakers in the continent.

While Arabic is traditionally associated with the Middle East, it has spread far beyond its original homeland. In Asia, Arabic holds significant importance as it is the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam

As a result, it is considered the sacred language of Islam and is used for religious rituals, prayers, and scholarly pursuits throughout Asia and the Muslim world. This linguistic connection has led to a widespread understanding of Arabic among Muslims in Asia, transcending national and ethnic boundaries.

Here are some phrases in Arabic to start practicing this millenarian language: 

  • Hello: مرحباً (Marhaban)
  • Thank you: شكراً (Shukran)
  • Yes: نعم (Na'am)
  • No: لا (La)
  • Goodbye: وداعاً (Wada'an)
  • Excuse me: عذراً (A'dhran)
  • How are you?: كيف حالك؟ (Kayfa ḥāluk?)
  • My name is...: اسمي... (Ismi...)
  • I don't understand: لا أفهم (La afham)
  • Please: من فضلك (Min fadlik)

4. Malay/Indonesian - 250 million speakers

The Malay/Indonesian language, often referred to as simply Malay (Bahasa Melayu in Malay), is a remarkable language that holds a unique place in the linguistic landscape of Southeast Asia with over 250 million speakers.

It serves as the national language of both Malaysia and Indonesia, two neighboring countries with diverse ethnic groups and cultures. What makes Malay/Indonesian particularly fascinating is its remarkable level of mutual intelligibility across the Malay Archipelago. 

While there are regional variations and dialects, speakers of Malay in one region can generally understand and communicate with speakers from other parts of the archipelago, making it a powerful tool for unity in this linguistically diverse region.

Let us show you some general phrases you can easily learn:

  • Hello: Halo ( Hah-loh)
  • Thank you: Terima kasih (Teh-ree-mah kah-see)
  • Yes: Ya (Yah)
  • No: Tidak (Tee-dahk)
  • Goodbye: Selamat tinggal (Seh-lah-maht ting-gahl)
  • Excuse me: Permisi ( Per-mee-see)
  • How are you?: Apa kabar? ( Ah-pah kah-bar)
  • My name is...: Nama saya... ( Nah-mah sah-yah...)
  • I don't understand: Saya tidak mengerti ( Sah-yah tee-dahk meng-ehr-tee)
  • Please: Silakan ( See-lah-kahn)

5. Urdu - 230 million speakers

Urdu is a captivating language with a rich cultural and historical significance, primarily known for its role in South Asia with around 230 million speakers.

It is the official language of Pakistan and is also spoken and understood in various parts of India. What sets Urdu apart is its unique linguistic blend. It evolved as a hybrid language during the Mughal Empire, combining elements of Persian, Arabic, and local Indian languages like Hindi. 

As a result, Urdu is often referred to as a "linguistic bridge" due to its ability to connect people from diverse linguistic backgrounds. Its script, known as Nastaʿlīq, is an exquisite and flowing style of writing that adds to the visual appeal of Urdu calligraphy.

Here are several phrases to start imersing in Urdu language:

  • Hello: ہیلو (Hello)
  • Thank you: شکریہ (Shukriya)
  • Yes: ہاں (Hān)
  • No: نہیں (Nahīn)
  • Goodbye: خدا حافظ (Khuda hāfiz)
  • Excuse me: معاف کریں (Maaf karein)
  • How are you?: آپ کیسے ہیں؟ (Āp kaise hain?)
  • My name is...: میرا نام ہے... (Mērā nām hai...)
  • I don't understand: میں نہیں سمجھا (Main nahīn samjha)
  • Please: براہ کرم (Barāh karam)

6. Bengali - 230 million speakers


Bengali, often called Bangla, is a captivating language with deep historical and cultural roots, with approximately 230 million speakers.

It is the official language of Bangladesh and one of the 22 scheduled languages of India, where it holds a significant presence in the state of West Bengal and the union territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 

What makes Bengali intriguing is its literary heritage. It is the language of Rabindranath Tagore, who became the first non-European Nobel laureate in Literature for his poetry and songs in Bengali. 

  • Hello: নমস্কার (Pronunciation: Nomoshkar)
  • Thank you: ধন্যবাদ (Pronunciation: Dhon-nobad)
  • Yes: হ্যাঁ (Pronunciation: Hyan)
  • No: না (Pronunciation: Na)
  • Goodbye: বিদায় (Pronunciation: Bidaay)
  • Excuse me: দয়া করে (Pronunciation: Doyā kore)
  • How are you?: আপনি কেমন আছেন? (Pronunciation: Āpni kemon āchen?)
  • My name is...: আমার নাম... (Pronunciation: Āmār nām...)
  • I don't understand: আমি বুঝতে পারছি না (Pronunciation: Āmi bujhte pārchi na)
  • Please: দয়া করে (Pronunciation: Doyā kore)

7. Japanese - 125 million speakers

With its intricate writing systems and rich cultural significance, Japanese is a language that embodies both tradition and modernity, with around 125,000,000 speakers.

It's renowned for its three scripts: Kanji (logographic characters borrowed from Chinese), Hiragana (a syllabary used for native Japanese words and grammatical elements), and Katakana (used primarily for loanwords and foreign names).

What makes Japanese particularly intriguing is its politeness levels, which are conveyed through various honorifics and expressions. This linguistic feature reflects the importance of social hierarchies and respect in Japanese culture, where the choice of words and expressions can convey nuanced meanings.

  • Hello: こんにちは (Konnichiwa)
  • Thank you: ありがとう (Arigatou)
  • Yes: はい (Hai)
  • No: いいえ (Iie)
  • Goodbye: さようなら (Sayounara)
  • Excuse me: すみません (Sumimasen)
  • How are you?: お元気ですか? (Ogenki desu ka?)
  • My name is...: 私の名前は...です (Watashi no namae wa... desu)
  • I don't understand: わかりません (Wakarimasen)
  • Please: お願いします (Onegaishimasu)

8. Punjabi - 100 million speakers

Punjabi, with over 100 million speakers, represents a vibrant culture with unique linguistic characteristics that thrive in the heart of South Asia. It serves as the official language of the Indian state of Punjab and the Pakistani province of Punjab. 

What makes Punjabi particularly fascinating is its script, Gurmukhi, which was developed by Guru Angad Dev Ji, the second Sikh Guru. Punjabi has a rich literary tradition, with the revered works of poets like Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Bulleh Shah, and Waris Shah.

The language is also known for its musical and poetic genre, Bhangra, which combines energetic rhythms with meaningful lyrics and dance, and it has gained global popularity. 

Here are some general phrases in Punjabi:

  • Hello: ਸਤ ਸ੍ਰੀ ਅਕਾਲ (Sat Sri Akal)
  • Thank you: ਧੰਨਵਾਦ (Dhanvaad)
  • Yes: ਹਾਂ (Haan)
  • No: ਨਹੀਂ (Nahi)
  • Goodbye: ਅੱਲ ਵਲ਼ੇਕੁਮ (Alwalekum)
  • Excuse me: ਮਾਫ ਕਰੋ (Maaf Karo)
  • How are you?: ਤੁਸੀਂ ਕਿਵੇਂ ਹੋ? (Tusi Kiven Ho?)
  • My name is...: ਮੇਰਾ ਨਾਂ ਹੈ... (Mera Naam Hai...)
  • I don't understand: ਮੈਂ ਸਮਝ ਨਹੀਂ ਰਿਹਾ (Main Samajh Nahi Riha)
  • Please: ਕਿਰਪਾ ਕਰਕੇ (Kirpa Karke)

9. Vietnamese - 95 million speakers

Vietnamese, the official language of Vietnam, is a linguistically unique and historically significant language spoken by 95,000,000 people. Its script sets Vietnamese apart, which uses the Latin alphabet with diacritics.

This writing system, known as Quốc Ngữ, was introduced by Portuguese missionaries in the 17th century and replaced the previous Chinese-based script. Vietnamese is also known for its six tones, which can drastically change the meaning of a word, making it both challenging and melodious to the ear.

The language is deeply rooted in Vietnamese culture and history, with a rich literary tradition dating back centuries, featuring famous poets like Nguyễn Du and Hồ Xuân Hương. 

Let’s see some phrases you can start practicing:

  • Hello: Xin chào (Pronunciation: Sin chow)
  • Thank you: Cảm ơn (Pronunciation: Kahm uhn)
  • Yes: Có (Pronunciation: Koh)
  • No: Không (Pronunciation: Khom)
  • Goodbye: Tạm biệt (Pronunciation: Tahm byet)
  • Excuse me: Xin lỗi (Pronunciation: Sin loy)
  • How are you?: Bạn khỏe không? (Pronunciation: Bahn khwe khom?)
  • My name is...: Tên tôi là... (Pronunciation: Ten toy lah...)
  • I don't understand: Tôi không hiểu (Pronunciation: Toy khom hee-uh)
  • Please: Làm ơn (Pronunciation: Lahm uhn)

10. Marathi - 83 million speakers

Marathi, is the official language of the Indian state of Maharashtra, and it has around 83.000,000 speakers. It is a language steeped in history and cultural significance. It boasts a unique script, the Devanagari script, which is also used for several other Indian languages. 

Marathi's literary heritage is rich, with centuries-old classics like the 13th-century "Dnyaneshwari" by Sant Dnyaneshwar and the poetry of saints like Tukaram and Namdev. 

One fascinating aspect of Marathi is its adaptability and versatility, which has made it a prominent language in various fields, from literature and theater to business and the entertainment industry, particularly the Marathi film and television industry.

Asia: A mixture of languages 

Asia is a linguistically diverse continent, with a rich tapestry of languages spoken across its vast and culturally diverse landscapes.

While it's challenging to provide an exact number due to the dynamic nature of languages and dialects, Asia is home to well over 2,000 languages.

These languages encompass a wide range of linguistic families, including Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan, Dravidian, Altaic, and Austroasiatic, among others. Some of these languages, like Mandarin Chinese and Hindi, boast over a billion speakers each, while others are spoken by smaller, often isolated, communities.

This linguistic diversity is a reflection of Asia's deep historical and cultural roots, geographical variations, and the interactions of its diverse populations over millennia.

No.LanguageSpeakers in Asia (Approximately)
1Mandarin Chinese1,000,000,000

Why Are There So Many Languages in Asia?

Asia's linguistic diversity can be attributed to its vast geography, rich history, and diverse cultures. 

Over centuries, various communities have developed their own languages, often influenced by neighboring cultures, trade routes, and migrations. This diversity is a testament to the continent's cultural richness and heritage.

Let's explore in detail why there are so many languages in Asia:

Geographic Diversity

Asia is the largest continent on Earth, encompassing diverse landscapes, from vast deserts to high mountain ranges and dense rainforests to extensive coastlines. 

This vast and varied geography has often led to the isolation of different communities, preventing easy communication and contributing to the development of distinct languages.

Historical and Cultural Factors

Asia has a rich history of ancient civilizations, empires, and dynasties. These societies have contributed to the linguistic diversity by influencing the languages spoken in their respective regions. 

For example, the Persian Empire left a linguistic imprint in parts of Asia, and the spread of Buddhism and Hinduism influenced languages in Southeast and South Asia.

Trade Routes and Cultural Exchanges

Asia has historically been a hub of trade routes connecting different parts of the continent and the world. These trade routes facilitated cultural exchanges and language interactions. As people from various regions came into contact, languages merged, borrowed words from one another, and evolved over time.

Diverse Ethnic Groups

Asia is home to a vast array of ethnic groups, each with its own unique culture and often its own language. 

These ethnic groups may have lived in relative isolation, leading to the development of distinct languages within smaller communities.


European colonial powers had a significant impact on language dynamics in Asia. Languages like English, French, Portuguese, and Dutch were introduced in various regions due to colonial rule. This colonial legacy still influences language use in some Asian countries.

Religious Influence

Asia is the birthplace of several major world religions, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, and Sikhism. These religions have their own sacred texts and practices, often conveyed in specific languages, which has contributed to linguistic diversity.

Political Boundaries

Modern political boundaries do not always align with linguistic boundaries. 

Some countries in Asia are home to multiple linguistic groups, which can result in the coexistence of several languages within a single nation.

Endangered Languages

Asia is also home to a significant number of endangered languages, which have very few remaining speakers and are at risk of becoming extinct. Factors like urbanization and globalization can threaten these languages.

In summary, the linguistic diversity in Asia is a product of its vast and varied geography, rich history, interactions among diverse cultures, trade routes, migrations, and the unique characteristics of individual ethnic groups.

It's a testament to the continent's cultural richness and heritage, and it highlights the resilience of languages in the face of changing times and evolving societies.

Most spoken languages in Asia: Conclusion

Asia is a continent full of ancient cultures that have helped shape the society we know today.

With over 2000 languages, this continent has several of the most spoken languages in the world.

The interest in the most spoken languages in Asia is a first step towards understanding the history and culture of a continent that every day offers the world a mix of tradition and innovation. Safeguarding the heritage of the past to live in a better future.

Learning one of the most spoken languages in Asia is undoubtedly a great opportunity to broaden commercial, academic and social horizons. So if you are interested we invite you to take a look at the courses that LingoMelo has for you.

Asia is and will continue to be a continent full of cultural richness with millenary languages that shape the present and the future.


What is the most spoken language in Asia?

Mandarin Chinese holds the distinction of being the most spoken language in Asia and the world, with over a billion native speakers.

How many languages are spoken in Asia?

Asia is incredibly linguistically diverse, with well over 2,000 languages spoken across the continent. However, this number can vary depending on how languages and dialects are classified.

Which language is the lingua franca of South Asia?

Hindi, along with its standardized form known as "Hindustani," serves as a lingua franca in South Asia, particularly in India. It is spoken by millions as a second language and is essential for communication in the region.

What is the script used for writing most Indian languages, including Hindi?

Devanagari is the script commonly used for writing many Indian languages, including Hindi. It is known for its distinctive characters and is widely used across the Indian subcontinent.

Why is Arabic significant in Asia?

Arabic is significant in Asia due to its role as the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. It is used for religious rituals, prayers, and scholarly pursuits in many Asian countries with significant Muslim populations, transcending national and ethnic boundaries.

How many languages are spoken in Asia?

Asia hosts over 2000 languages associated with unique scripts and writing systems, adding to the complexity and richness of the linguistic landscape. Moreover, globalization and modernization have also led to the spread of major languages such as English and Mandarin, further influencing the linguistic dynamics in the continent.

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  2. How to Learn Urdu
  3. How To Learn Japanese
Paula is an accomplished content strategist, communicator, and journalist with over 7 years of experience creating materials for language learners. Having worked on language curriculums and learning platforms in Colombia, Spain, and Australia, Paula offers an international perspective on second language acquisition. Her background in journalism and brand messaging allows her to develop content that informs and engages language learners across diverse platforms and learning styles.